The emergence and development of the concept of the proletariat in the young Marx have not been extensively studied. Althusser opposed the early Marxian works (1841–1845) to the “mature” ones. Conversely, some authors have considered the proletariat as the extension of the notion of the individual, a fundamental concept from which subsequent concepts were derived. We base our article on this analysis expressed by Henry and supported by Ricœur. We review the concept of the individual in the young Marx, while considering the origins of the proletariat before Marx redefined it. We then study the double evolution of this concept in terms of philosophical and Marxian political ambition.